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2016-11-4

A group of researchers led by Professor ONO Takahiro, Faculty of Dentistry, Niigata University; Professor MAEDA Yoshinobu and Medical Staffer KIKUI Miki, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University; and Manager MIYAMOTO Yoshihiro and Chief Doctor KOKUBO Yoshihiro, Preventive Cardiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, clarified a relationship between the decline of masticatory performance and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), based on standardized surveys of a randomly selected general urban Japanese population by using a method adhering to the official standards.

Arteriosclerotic diseases, such as cerebral stroke and ischemic cardiac disease, are the second most common cause of death in Japan. As a measure against such diseases, based on the disease concept of MetS, health checkups including tests for risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal serum lipid are conducted, but that’s not enough. It is thought beneficial to clarify the relationship between oral health and MetS and establish medicine-dentistry cooperation for preventing arteriosclerotic diseases.

This group conducted basic health and dental checkups of 1,780 people in their 50s~70s who were randomly chosen from the population registry. Masticatory performance was evaluated by a method for calculating the surface area of gummy jelly, which was specially developed for this purpose, increased by chewing 30 times. By using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting gender, drinking and smoking status, and periodontal status, this group analyzed the relationships between MetS and masticatory performance.

The subjects were classified into 4 groups by masticatory performance. Compared to the highest quartile of masticatory performance, the 2nd quartile showed a 1.46-fold increase in the prevalence of MetS. For individuals in their 70s, analysis by age showed 1.67~1.90-fold increases in the prevalence of MetS in the quartiles with compromised masticatory performance.

These findings suggested that a risk of metabolic syndrome can be evaluated by measuring masticatory performance. It is hoped that this will lead to strategies for a new medicine-dentistry cooperation in preventing arteriosclerotic diseases.

Abstract

Objectives

An association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been focused on. However, no study has investigated the relationship between the prevalence of MetS and the decline of masticatory performance. We aimed to clarify the relationship between MetS and objective masticatory performance using the standardized test food in a general urban Japanese population.

Methods

We studied 1780 Japanese men and women (mean age, 66.5 years) using the Suita study. MetS was defined using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. Masticatory performance was evaluated by a chewing test using gummy jelly. Prevalence of MetS among quartiles of masticatory performance was compared using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, drinking and smoking status, and periodontal status evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index.

Results

Compared to the highest quartile of masticatory performance, the 2nd quartile showed a 1.46-fold increase in the prevalence of MetS (trend P = 0.159). In addition, Analysis by age showed 1.67-, 1.90- and 1.74-fold increases in the prevalence of MetS in the 3rd, 2nd and 1st quartiles among individuals in their 70s, respectively (trend P = 0.094). However, individuals in their 50s and 60s showed no significant relationship between masticatory performance and MetS.

Conclusions

These findings suggested that masticatory performance are inversely associated with the prevalence of MetS independent of periodontal disease, especially in the elderly.

Clinical significance

Declines in objective masticatory performance might be associated with the prevalence of MetS, independent of periodontitis. Given our results, treatments aimed at maintaining and recovering masticatory performance may represent important dental care to mitigate the risk of MetS.

To learn more about this research, please view the full research report entitled “Relationship between metabolic syndrome and objective masticatory performance in a Japanese general population: The Suita study” at this page of the Journal of Dentistry website.


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